PROFIL LEUKOKORIA PADA ANAK DI RSUP Dr. M. DJAMIL PADANG

Kemala Sayuti, Azwin Aziz, Maya Nasrul

Abstract

Abstrak
Tujuan penelitian ini ialah menilai penyebab leukokoria pada pasien anak di RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang dengan rancang studi cross sectional. Data dikumpulkan dari medical record pasien dengan riwayat leukokoria atau pupil putih yang berusia kurang dari 13 tahun di bagian mata RSUP Dr M Djamil Padang periode Oktober 2009 Februari 2011. Diagnosis banding disingkirkan melalui pemeriksaan USG dan patologi. Dari 36 pasien dengan leukokoria, 21 orang (58,3%) laki-laki dan umur rata-rata 31,3 bulan. Penyebab leukokoria adalah retinoblastoma 12 pasien (33,4%), tiga diantaranya bilateral, katarak kongenital 11 pasien (30,5%), delapan diantaranya bilateral, katarak traumatika 5 pasien (13,8%), uveitis intra uterin 2 pasien (5,5%), keduanya bilateral, dan ROP 2 pasien (5,5%), satu diantaranya bilateral. Kami juga menemukan penyebab lain, masing-masing satu pasien dengan leukokoria unilateral, antara lain: PHPV (2,7%), endoftalmitis eksogen (2,7%), uveitis anterior (2,7%), dan glioma nervus optikus (2,7%). Sangat krusial mengetahui perbedaan gambaran klinik retinoblastoma dan katarak kongenital, karena pengobatannya berbeda, dan retinoblastoma mengancam kehidupan, sedangkan katarak kongenital mengancam penglihatan.

Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the etiology of leukocoria in children using cross sectional study conducted in eye clinic of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang. Samples were taken from medical records of patients with children leukocoria during the period of October 2009 to February 2011. Differential diagnosis eliminated by USG and pathology examination. There were 36 children with leukocoria in total, 21 of them were boys (58,3%). The mean age was 31.3 months old. The causes of leukocoria were retinoblastoma in 12 patients (33,4%) three of them were bilateral, followed respectively by congenital cataract in 11 patients (30.5%) which 8 of them were bilateral, traumatic cataract in 5 patients (13.8%), intrauterine uveitis in 2 patients (5,5%) both were bilateral, and ROP in 2 patients (5,5%) which one of them was bilateral. We also found one patient each with unilateral leukocoria for following causes: PHPV (2.7%), exogen endophthalmitis (2.7%), anterior uveitis (2,7%), and optic nerve glioma (2.7%). Thus, awareness and clinical knowledge to differentiate retinoblastoma and congenital cataract are crucial for appropriate treatment, since retinoblastoma can cost patient’s life while congenital cataract can threat sight condition.

Keywords

leukokoria; retinoblastoma; katarak kongenital; leukocoria; retinoblastoma; congenital cataract

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